Different developments in the North and South
North: The northern soil and climate favoured smaller farmsteads rather than large plantations. In the north factories and iron and steel production flourished thanks to more abundant natural resources. Also, more and more people started living in more urban areas and many larger cities were established (f.e. New York). Slavery had died out.
South: Thanks to the fertile soil and warm climate South was perfect for large farms and 80% of the labour force worked on farms. Only about a tenth of people lived in urban areas and transportation was difficult.
The abolitionist movement was a social and political push for the immediate emancipation of all slaves and the end of racial discrimination and segregation. The abolitionist movement became increasingly prominent in Northern churches and politics beginning in the 1830s, which contributed to the regional animosity between North and South leading up to the Civil War. The movement was led by people like Frederick Douglass(former slave), Sojourner Truth and John Brown.
Missouri compromise (of 1820)
The Missouri Compromise was an effort by Congress to defuse the sectional and political rivalries triggered by the request of Missouri late in 1819 for admission as a state in which slavery would be permitted. At the time, the United States contained twenty-two states, evenly divided between slave and free. To keep the peace, Congress orchestrated a two-part compromise, granting Missouri’s request but also admitting Maine as a free state.
Fugitive Slave Act
The Fugitive Slave Acts were a pair of federal laws that allowed for the capture and return of runaway slaves within the territory of the United States. The first Slave Act enacted by Congress in 1793 authorized local governments to seize and return escaped slaves to their owners. The law also imposed a 500$ penalty on any person who helped harbour or conceal escaped slaves. Widespread resistance to that law led to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. Which set even harsher punishments and received a lot more criticism and resistance than the previous one. With the 2nd one, the fine became 1000$. By 1860 only 300 slaves were returned.
The Underground Railroad was a network of people, African American as well as white, offering shelter and aid to escaped slaves from the South. The exact dates of its existence are not known, but it operated from the late 18th century to the Civil War. People known as “conductors” guided the fugitive slaves. Hiding places, also known as stations included private homes, churches and schoolhouses. Most Underground Railroad operators were ordinary people, farmers and business owners, as well as ministers. The Underground Railroad ceased operations about 1863, during the Civil War.
Dred Scott case
The Dred Scott case was one of the most controversial events in US history. Dred Scott was a slave who lived with his owner in a free state before returning to the slave state of Missouri. Scott argued that time spent in a free state entitled him to emancipation. The one that persuaded him to got court was actually his wife because they had 2 children and young slaves were very valuable. But the court decided that no black, free or slave, could claim U.S. citizenship.
Formation of Confederacy
The Confederate States of America was a collection of 11 states that seceded from the United States in 1860 following the election of President Abraham Lincoln. Led by Jefferson Davis and existing from 1861 to 1865, the Confederacy struggled for legitimacy and was never recognized as a sovereign nation. After suffering a crushing defeat in the Civil War, the Confederate States of America ceased to exist.
Causes of the Civil War (1861-1865)
The Civil War in the United States began in 1861, after decades of simmering tensions between northern and southern states over slavery, states’ rights and westward expansion. Northern opposition to slavery’s extension into the new western territories led many southerners to fear that the existence of slavery in America and thus the backbone of their economy was in danger. Since the Constitution was first written there had been arguments about how much power the states should have versus how much power the federal government should have. The southern states felt that the federal government was taking away their rights and powers. As the United States continued to expand westward, each new state added to the country shifted the power between the North and the South. Southern states began to fear they would lose so much power that they would lose all their rights. The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 was the last straw and caused seven southern states to secede and form the Confederate States of America; four more states soon joined them. Lincoln was part of the new anti-slavery Republican Party. The southern states felt that Lincoln was against slavery and also against the South.
Developments and outcome of the war
Medicine developed tremendously during the Civil War. At the time the nation’s first ambulances developed, carrying wounded soldiers to the battlefront hospitals. Before the war, most people received health care at home. After the war, hospitals adapted from the battlefront model cropped up all over the country.
During the war, 15,000 miles of telegraph cable was laid purely for military purposes. Mobile telegraph wagons reported and received communications from just behind the frontline. President Lincoln would regularly visit the Telegraph Office to get the latest news.
The Civil War was the first war to use railroads, encouraged by President Lincoln — himself a former railroad lawyer — who understood how vital they were for moving men and supplies. North had a distinct advantage, with superior infrastructure (20,000 miles of track), better equipment and their own locomotive factory. Whereas the South had just 9,000 miles of track and had converted its locomotive works into an armaments factory. While the South’s rail system was weak, they were the first to use trains to their advantage, transporting supplies and soldiers to vital areas.
The Civil War’s lasting effects include abolishing the institution of slavery in America and firmly redefining the United States as a single, indivisible nation rather than a loosely bound collection of independent states.
President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of civil war. The proclamation declared “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebellious states “are, and henceforward shall be free.” While the Emancipation Proclamation did not free a single slave, it was an important turning point in the war, transforming the fight to preserve the nation into a battle for human freedom.
For my visual, I chose this picture of African American troops. I chose this picture because a lot of events and issues at that time revolved around people of colour and their rights. More and more white people started to think of them as free men and thought they should have equal rights. Whether they should be allowed to serve in the US Army was a source of a lot of arguments and there were many conflicting opinions. Despite that, men of colour played a big role in America’s Civil war by raising funds, supplying goods and providing labour. It was the first time black men could participate in the army and they were dedicated to it from their hearts. By the end of the Civil War, nearly 180,000 black men served in the army, about 10% of all soldiers, making it a huge landmark for the equality of races.
Historical accuracy and review of the movie
Compared to the previous movie we watched, “The Patriot”, I found this one historically more accurate and more of a history movie rather than an action movie, since a lot of the narration is taken from real historical documents. Although the movie itself I didn’t really enjoy, more on that later, I thought it was very well made and gave a pretty good overview of the era and its issues.
What helped make the movie so accurate was that the events actually happened and the outcome was how it was shown in the movie and some characters also took part in the Civil War in real life as well, some worth mentioning are Colonel Shaw and Frederick Douglas. “The characters in Glory never seem less than three-dimensional.” is what one person wrote about how Kevin Jarre depicted the men in the movie. (http://www.reelviews.net/reelviews/glory) I would definitely agree with it. Although at least partially fiction, the characters of the men who joined the 54th regiment intended to show the different types of African American soldiers who joined it, what can sometimes happen with this approach is that the characters lose the relatability with the viewer and start to seem like a type rather than people. The director, Kevin Jarre, did a great job at avoiding that mistake. One thing that helped the most was how he didn’t only show Shaw’s perspective but also those of some of the soldiers, f.e. Trip and Thomas.
When thinking of the era many believe that blacks were thought of as equal to whites in the north, that was thought due to the fact that slavery was banned and they were considered free men. Although, in reality, racism was still a huge issue and the movie depicted that really well by keeping things as real as possible and true to reality, without sugarcoating it to make the movie seem more fairytale like. This is another thing that made the movie seem very accurate and true to the era.
Now, why I didn’t like the movie. The reason, why I didn’t quite enjoy it has nothing to do with how it was made but is my own personal preference. I don’t enjoy war movies, it isn’t the blood, in fact, I love all the “Saw” movies, they are some of my favourites, but it’s just the violence between people, the fact that it actually took part in history and is based on reality. Somehow these types of movies upset me and I can’t help but look away. So this movie would not be in my personal list of movies to watch.
Historically speaking the movie was very accurate and well made. It had many touching and memorable scenes. “This is what every war movie strives to be and beyond.” were another viewers thoughts who at first had quite low expectations for it but ended up really enjoying it. (https://www.imdb.com/review/rw1614355/?ref_=tt_urv) I also think that as a war movie it is very well made and accurate.